What Exactly Does No Impact Look Like?

The purpose of this post is to analyze the documentary “No Impact Man” and describe its relevance to our class discussions. It is also to analyze different variables in Gapminder to find meaningful relationships.

No Impact Man

The documentary that I watched was called “No Impact Man”.  It was about a man named Collin and his family who decided to live for one year without having any (or hardly any) negative impact on the earth.  This strongly relates to our class discussions because we have talked a great deal about the topics of resources.  It is clear that there are many resources being depleted (i.e. forests and fisheries).  We have also talked a great deal about the topic of ecological footprint (personally, nationally, and globally).  By living without impact for one year, this family reduced their footprint to almost 0, and then encouraged others to decrease their footprint as well.  Collin and his family lived without electricity, toilet paper, plastic containers, etc. They did not use public transportation and they used words to decompose their very small amount of waste.  They also only ate locally and did not visit restaurants.

I thoroughly enjoyed this movie. I thought that both Collin and his wife Michelle were very funny.  Not only that, but I thought what they were doing was really cool. I think it takes a lot of strength and willpower to be able to do what they did, and I think that more people should attempt to do the same (although maybe on a smaller scale).  Overall, I thought that the movie was very eye opening and I thought that it really captured its intended message.  While it do think that it would be extremely difficult to live with ZERO impact, I think that Collin does a great job of explaining that while having no impact is ideal, it is very difficult.  Thus, if everyone did what they could to reduce their impact significantly, there would be a serious positive effect on the environment.

Gapminder

Link to graph:  www.bit.ly/mPGHEN

When looking at different statistic for the United States, there are two variables that stand out to me.  These are GDP and CO2 emissions.  These two factors are very strongly related in the United States.  As GDP goes up, so to does CO2 emissions.  Thus, the higher ones GDP, the more CO2 emissions one causes.  I think this is very interesting and it would also be interested to look at different countries and how their GDP corresponds to their level of CO2 emissions.  When looking at the graph, it is clear to see that the amount of CO2 emissions increases as the years go on.  This is largely due to the fact that technology is improving, transportation is growing, and the society is industrializing as a whole.

Pushing the Limits of Population

The purpose of this post is to identify the current state of the human population in terms of the Earth and its ability to support the population.

When deciding the current state of the human population, it is important to look at Earth’s carrying capacity. Ecologists define carrying capacity as the maximal population size of a given species that an area can support without reducing its ability to support the same species in the future (1). While it is difficult to pinpoint the exact carrying capacity of the Earth, we can be fairly certain that we are steadily approaching its capacity due to human’s consumption of resources as well as an increase in the human population.

There are many causes for this increase in the human population. These include a high birth rate and a relatively low death rate due to advances in medicine and technology. Some other causes are more agricultural production, restrictions on women’s rights, and prohibitions on birth control (2).

There is an ongoing debate between two groups known as Cassandras and Cornucopians on the topics of human population and the environment. Cassandras believe that unchecked growth in numbers of people and material consumption rates will inevitably lead to environmental and social catastrophe (2). On the other hand, Cornucopians believe that human ingenuity and free markets will allow the human species to adapt to any conceivable pressures caused by population growth (2).

In my opinion, it is clear that a problem does exist. While I do not feel as though the earth is completely doomed like the Cassandras, I do feel as though we must work harder as a society to find solutions to the problems that are capable of being improved upon.

Paul Ehrlich and I PAT

Paul Ehrlich is an American biologist and Professor of Population Studies at Stanford University. He is well known for his controversial book The Population Bomb. He is also famous for positing three major factors that determine sustainability: population, affluence, and technology. These three factors are summarized by the equation I PAT or I = P x A x T.
In his 1968 book The Population Bomb, Ehrlich predicted a mass starvation of humans in the 1970s and 1980s due to overpopulation, as well as other societal disturbances. He also suggested immediate action to limit population growth. While he was not exactly correct in his prediction of a mass starvation, this does not mean that the levels of starvation around the world have not risen. However, I think it is safe to say that while Ehrlich is right to advocate limiting population growth, his drastic predictions did not prove true.

The I PAT equation

United States: The United States has somewhat of a large population, but it are not as densely populated as other countries. However, it is a very affluent country which would increase it’s impact. Furthermore, the U.S. is very technologically advanced which also has a strong impact on the I PAT result.

China: China’s I PAT result differs from the U.S. for a few reasons. For one, China has an extremely large population, increasing the country’s impact dramatically. It is also less affluent than the United States, thus somewhat decreasing the impact. However, China is known for it’s technological advancement and innovation, which would cause a strong increase in its overall I PAT score.

Libya: Libya’s I PAT result would be drastically different from that of the U.S. or China. Libya does not have a very large population, a high level of affluence, or a strong reliance on technology. Thus, the overall impact of Libya would be very low.

Hans Rosling

Another well-known scientist who deals with the issue of population is Hans Rosling. He is a Swedish doctor, academic, statistician and public speaker. In one of his presentations, he used his dataset to discuss misconceptions regarding certain countries. One interested point that he mentioned was that one should no separate countries by “third world” and “developed”. He explained that there are numerous misconceptions regarding the so called “third world” countries and that if one takes a look at the data set, one can see that there is no clear divide that separates these two types of countries. I found this very interesting because I sometimes find myself using these terms, but after hearing his lecture, I will now think twice about using them.

References

1. Daily, G. C., Ehrlich, P. R. (1992). Population, Sustainability, and Earth’s Carrying Capactiy. Bioscience.

2. Withgott, J. & Brennan, S. (2010). Environment: The science behind the stories. 4th Ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education.

The True Cost of Food

The purpose of this assignment was to look at the Ecological Footprint in terms of food and to answer the question of who exactly pays for the food we consume – us or the environment?

The Ecological Footprint is the measure of human’s impact on the environment.  There are many different factors that could contribute to the EF of a country such as its population size, degree of industrialization, and its standard of living.  One of the many contributors the to Ecological Footprint is the food we consume.  While many do not realize just how much effort goes into transporting food from the field to the table, there is indeed a long process involved in this transition.  While the transportation of food does has its benefits, there are also many drawbacks which contribute to the high ecological footprints of many countries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is no question that American’s do not regularly practice sustainability when it comes to their food.  On average, food travels 1,400 miles from the field to the table.  The cost of this is covered by what American’s pay for the food, which is approximately one dollar per mile.

Here are the food transportation costs for me, my class, my town, and the U.S.:

Consumer Daily Cost Annual cost
You $1.40 $511
Your class $28 $10,220
Your town (New York) $11,709,194 $4,273,855,810
United States $429,809,170 $156,880,347,050

There is an astounding amount of resources being used by traveling so far to bring food to the Market. This is definitely not a sustainable practice because it is using many resources simply to transport another type of resource. Not only are we using energy by transporting the food, but in order to make the food last longer and survive the transport process, we add chemicals to it which are also harmful to the environment. Thus, if people bought locally we could greatly increasing environmental sustainability.

There may be a few disadvantages to buying locally produced food. For example, because if its freshness it may be more expensive. Also, it may be more difficult to get desired items since some areas of the U.S. can only grow certain products. For example, it may be difficult for someone who lives in the north to get an item that is only grown in the south. However, I definitely believe that the advantages of buying local outweigh the cost. I think even if it means spending a little more on food, our environment is worth the extra cost.

Recently in the U.S., gas prices have been steadily on the rise.  Yet even if there was a drastic increase in gas prices, I believe my answers would remain the same because I am in favor of buying locally. I think an increase in gas prices would only make me more adamant about the need to buy locally and the negative costs of transporting goods such long distances.

"Food Stand Evolves" http://www.boston.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is also interesting to look at how the American food supply and transport process compares to that of other countries. Based on the size of our country, I would say that most other countries do not have to transport food over such great distances. However, this brings up the topic of transporting goods from other countries because not all countries are able to produce certain products due to their climate and/or terrain. I would think that even the bigger European countries would have smaller figures however because it seems as though Europeans are better about buying local and about preserving the natural state of their foods (i.e., not using genetically modified organisms).

Overall, these figures show that the food transport and supply process in the U.S. (as well as probably other countries) should be improved upon if we wish to increase environmental sustainability. While there are some ways to do this, it will take a great deal of effort to completely revamp the process, but even small improvements over time could have a significant effect.

A Review of Chapters 1,2,3,4 and 6

Ecology Test

Chapter 1

Summary: Chapter one provides an introduction to environmental science and the menthods used withing the field.  It also focuses on the impact of humans on the environment.

1.  Explain in your own words the importance of sustainability. Define the concept and provide at least one example of how a society has either thrived or failed due to their use of sustainable practices or lack thereof.

2.  Typically, the first step in the scientific method is ____________.

  • Observations
  • Predictions
  • Questions
  • Test

3.  Environmental science is a social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world whereas environmentalism is the pursuit of knowledge about the workings of the environment and our interactions with it.

  • True
  • False

4.  In the mid 1700s, a shift from rural life, animal-powered agriculture, and handcrafted goods to an urban society occurred.  This was known as the ___________.

  • Agricultural revolution
  • Tragedy of the Commons
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Fossil Fuel Revolution

5.  Those who believe that we will find ways to make Earth’s natural resources meet all of our needs indefinitely are known as ____________.

  • Environmentalists
  • Cornucopians
  • Cassandrans
  • Biocentrics

6.  Which of the following is NOT a goal of the triple bottom line:

  • Economic advancement
  • Environmental protection
  • The promotion of social equity
  • Lowering earth’s natural capital

7.  Which of the following are NOT declining:

  • Earth’s biodiversity
  • Earth’s human population
  • Earth’s natural capital
  • Earth’s non-renewable resources

8.  A theory is a statement that attempts to explain a phenomenon or answer a scientific question

  • True
  • False

9.  Relate your ecological footprint to the average footprint of one other country.  How does it compare? Explain why it is different or similar and what the reasons for this might be.

10.  Match the following:

  • Peer review- a
  • Manipulative experiment- b
  • Natural experiment- c
  • Controlled experiment- d
  • Observational science- e

__ The scientist controls for the effects of all variables except the one whose effect he or she is testing

__ Type of research in which scientists gather basic information about organisms, materials, systems, and processes that are not well known

__ Compares how dependent variables are expressed in naturally different contexts

__The researcher actively chooses and alters the independent variable

__ Process by which a manuscript is examined by other specialists in the field

Chapter 2

Summary:  Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the field of chemistry and its basic concepts such as molecules and energy.  It focuses on the ways in which chemistry affects animals, humans, and the environment.

1.  Organic compounds are ________.

  • Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen
  • Carbon atoms joined by covalent bonds
  • Long chains of repeated molecules
  • Large-size molecules

2.  Kinetic energy is changed into potential energy to produce motion, action, and heat

  • True
  • False

3.  Match the following:

__ Proton

__ Neutron

__ Nucleus

__ Electron shell

__ Electron

 

 

 

4.  Apply your knowledge of scientific concepts to describe how this animal is able to walk on water:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.  On the pH scale, basic solutions are greater than 7, acidic solutions are less than 7, and neutral solutions are 7.

  • True
  • False

6.   The simplest hydrocarbon is _______:

  • Methane
  • Rubber
  • Naphthalene
  • Ethane

7.  Which of the following molecules is NOT a polymer?

  • Carbohydrates
  • Nucleic acids
  • Lipids
  • Proteins

8.  The first law of thermodynamics states that ______:

  • Energy can change forms but cannot be created nor destroyed
  • Energy can be both created and destroyed
  • The nature of energy changes from a more-ordered to a less-ordered state
  • The nature of energy changes from a less-ordered to a more-ordered state

9.  Identify the three types of energy and describe how they differ from one another:

10.  The ratio of useful energy output to the amount needing to be input is known as___.

  • Photosynthesis
  • Energy Conversion Efficiency
  • Cellular Respiration
  • pH Scale

Chapter 3

Summary: The main points in this chapter outline the process of natural selection and the characteristics of populations that calculate population growth. The five levels of the ecological organization are also summarized as well as the conservation of biodiversity.

1.  According to Charles Darwin, which of the following is NOT true regarding natural selection

  • Organisms face a constant struggle to survive and reproduce
  • Organisms tend to produce more offspring than can survive
  • Individuals of a species do not vary in their characteristics
  • Some individuals are better suited to their environment and will survive and pass their genes on in their offspring

2.   When a species cannot adapt quickly enough to a changing environment, this is known as _______.

  • Extinction
  • Sympatric speciation
  • Allopatric speciation
  • Disruptive selection

3.  Match the following:

  • Directional selection -a
  • Stabilizing selection -b
  • Disruptive selection -c
  • Natural selection -d
  • Artificial selection -e

__ the process by which traits that enhance survival and reproduction are    passed on more frequently to future generations than those that do not

__ the process of selection conducted under human direction

__ produces intermediate traits, preserving the status quo

__ traits diverge in two or more directions

__ drives a feature in one direction

4.  Using the image below as well as your knowledge of genetic variation, adaptation, and mutation, analyze how such a variation could affect this particular animal as well as the community as a whole.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.  After every mass extinction the biodiversity has returned to or exceeded its original state.

  • True
  • False

6.  Describe how speciation and extinction together determines Earth’s biodiversity. Make sure to include the definition of biosphere in your description.

7.  __________ attribute(s) is an example of a limiting factor that restrains population growth.

  • Chemical
  • Psychological
  • Ecological
  • Carrying capacity

8.  What is the natural rate of population growth in a community that has a population of 6 million if the crude birth rate is 50,000 and the crude death rate is 26,000?

  • 34,000
  • 120,000
  • 76,000
  • 5,340,000

9.  An animal species that have long gestation periods and have few offspring, are an example of r-selected species.

  • True
  • False

10.  Which type of distribution does this image represent?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4

Summary: The main points in this chapter were the types of species interactions that occur in an ecosystem and the discussion of the different terrestrial biomes of the world. The different trophic levels as well as the food webs were also described in great detail and the prediction of potential invasive species in communities was displayed.

1.  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of predation?

  • The process by which one species hunts and consumes an individual of another species.
  • Interactions among predators and prey have been ruining the organization of the food web.
  • Zebra mussels are a species characterized as predators.
  • Most predators are also prey for another animal species.

2.   Match the following descriptions to their respective trophic level in an ecological community.

  • Primary consumers -a
  • Decomposers -b
  • Producers -c
  • Tertirary consumers -d

__ herbivores characterize this trophic level

__ organisms that characterize this level enhance top most soil layers and play essential roles as the community’s recyclers.

__ algae captures solar energy and uses photosynthesis to provide sugar

__ rodents are eaten by animals in this trophic level

3.  Analyze these animals in the picture and classify which animal is the beginning of the food chain and work your way up to the top of the food chain. In your analysis discuss the trophic level that each animal falls into as well.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.  Primary succession follows a disaster that wipes out all vegetation and soil life.

  • True
  • False

5.  Illustrate how zebra mussels and quagga mussels affect a community on the Great Lakes? Please give at least three examples.

6.   Which biome(s) does the state of California fall into?

  • Chaparral
  • Desert, Temperate Grassland
  • Chaparral, Savanna, Mountainous regions
  • Chaparral, Desert, Temperate Rainforest

7.  Products such as lumber and paper are produced in the temperate decidous forest.

  • True
  • False

8.  A climatograph that experiences significance season variation in rainfall from about October to April is an example of which biome?

  • Tundra
  • Tropical rainforest
  • Temperate rainforest
  • Savanna

9.  Which of the following ecologists promoted the idea that communities are cohesive entities whose members remain associated over time and space?

  • Darwin
  • Clements
  • Gleason
  • Strayer

10.  Individuals minimizing competition by changing their behvavior to only using a portion of the total number of resources characterize which form of species interaction?

  • Intraspecific competiton
  • Competitive exclusion
  • Species coexistence
  • Inerspecific competition

Chapter 6

Summary: This chapter focused ethical standards mostly involving the environment and the expansion of ethics through the western world. The different types of economies were also introduced and the implication of each on the environment. Sustainablity with respect to ethics, economics, and businesses was also described thoroughly.

1.  One type of an economy is the subsistence economy. Explain how people in this type of economy go aobut daily activities and compare that to other economies discussed in class.

2.  Which of the following can NOT be contributed to a steady state economy.

  • A British economist John Stuart Mill hypothesized that as resources become harder to find and extract economic growth would slow.
  • Wealth and happiness will not continue to rise when economic growth is leveled.
  • The story of the Aboriginal Australians demonstrate what happens when society subsists sustainability.
  • Critics of this type of economy assume that an end to growth will bring an end to the rising quality of life.

3.  Ecolabeling, a method that informs consumers whcih brands use environmentally benign processes does t not help market failure.

  • True
  • False

4.  The bottled water industry is an example of:

  • Greenwashing
  • Socially responsible investing
  • Contingent valuation
  • Energy efficiency

5.  The Exxon Valdez Oil spill did what for the US economy?

  • Had no effect
  • Decreased US GDP
  • Increased US GDP
  • Solely devestated Alaskan beaches

6.  More resource extraction is both a cause and consequence to rising per capita consumption.

  • True
  • False

7.  Apply the knowledge you have learned about ethics, economics, and the environments on the Kakadu Region in Australia and the current problem there.

8.  Match the definitions of nonmarket values to their term.

  • Existence Value -a
  • Cultural Value -b
  • Option Value -c
  • Educational Value -d

__ Just because they exist even though they may never be experienced directly.

__ Things that sustain or help define our culture.

__ May use now or later.

__ Teach us about ourselves and the world.

9.  Which of the following is not an example of classical economics?

  • Nicknames ‘’the invisible hand’’ by Adam Smith
  • Examines the psychological factors underlying consumer choices
  • People are free to pursue their own economic self-interest in a competitive marketplace.
  • This philosophy remains a pillar of free-market thought today.

10. _______ ethic holds that we should protect the natural environment in a pristine, unaltered state

  • conservation
  • preservation
  • environment
  • ecological

Ecological Footprints: How Much is too Much?

The Ecological Footprint is a measure of how much land and water a human population requires to produce the resources it consumes as well as to absorb its wastes (1).  It has become the best way of determining humanity’s demand on nature.

Carrying capacity is defined as the maximum population of a given species that can survive indefinitely in a given environment (2).  It is dependent on both resources and consumption habits of species, and because these two factors can change, carrying capacity is also constantly changing (2).

When a population exceeds the long-term carrying capacity, this is known as overshoot.  As a result, the population experiences what is known as a crash or die-off (3).

Below is the table that I created which shows the Ecological Footprint of 12 different countries as well as my personal ecological footprint.

Based on the table, one can see that these countries have a wide range of Ecological Footprints.  It makes sense that Bangladesh would have a small Ecological Footprint because it is not a very developed country and it does not have many of the technological advancements that use a great deal of electricity and other resources.  On the other hand, it makes sense that Australia’s Ecological Footprint is so large because they are a highly developed country that uses many modern technologies which contribute to the consumption of resources.  The Ecological Footprint for the United Arab Emirates on the other hand is a little more difficult to understand.  One possible reason as to why their footprint is so large is due to their location.  Because the land is primarily desert, it makes sense they they would use a great deal of air conditioning and other methods of cooling both the air and the water.

When comparing the Ecological Footprints to the GDPs, there is a clear trend.  In general, the higher the GPD of a country, the higher the Ecological Footprint.  This makes sense because raising the GDP generally involves placing more stress on the capacity for resources due to a variety of contributors such as waste disposal, power usage, etc.

Personally, I was very surprised to see that my own Ecological Footprint was so high. I always try to remain environmentally concious with my everyday actions, yet even still my Ecological footprint was 7.75.  Though this is slightly smaller than the national average of my country (The United States has an average of 9.5 hectares per person), it is still much greater than the world average (2.23 hectares).  In fact, if everyone on the planet lived the way I do, it would take 5.18 Earth’s to support everyone!

“Healing the Earth”, icicp.blogspot.com

Furthermore, when comparing my Ecological Footprint to that of Bangladesh’s average, there is a large difference.  Bangladesh’s Ecological Footprint is only about one quarter of the world’s average footprint.  My ecological footprint is most similar to that of Australia’s population.  Australia’s Ecological Footprint is 7.7 hectares per person while mine is 7.75 hectares.  What surprised me is how much greater my ecological footprint is compared to other developed countries such as Italy.  While my footprint is 7.75 hectares, Italy’s average footprint is only 3.8 hectares per person.

Though I know I could be doing more to conserve energy on a daily basis, I never realized just how much damage I was doing.  Seeing these numbers and comparing them to those of other countries is very eye-opening.  I am determined to do more to reduce my Ecological Footprint as well as to inform others of just how much of an impact we have on the environment and what we can do to combat this problem.

References

1.  (2010). Footprint Basics. Retrieved from http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/footprint_basics_overview

2.  (2003). Carrying Capacity. Retrieved from http://www.sustainablescale.org/ConceptualFramework/UnderstandingScale

3.  (2010). Overshoot. Retrieved from http://www.dictionary30.com/meaning/Overshoot

Easter Island vs. Tikopia Island: The Role of Sustainability

A. Comparison of Easter Island to other Islands

“an aerial photograph of easter island today”, www.jointheevolution.ca/blog/2009

Today, Easter Island is a small, hilly, and almost treeless island with a population of roughly 2,000 people. They practice a relatively modern lifestyle characterized by Polynesian culture. The island has one major town with paved roads. It is over 2,000 miles from the nearest population center, which makes it one of the most isolated places on earth. The standing stone statues called Moai which were re-erected by archaeologists demonstrate the islander’s connection with their past. The inhabitants of the island are reportedly some of the friendliest people in the world and often let visitors stay in their homes for an authentic travel experience. Tourism is a major part of Easter Island today and is a popular destination spot for Chileans as well as the rest of the world.

http://godlesspaladin.wordpress.com/2010/10

At the time of the arrival of the first inhabitants, most of the island was forested and flourished with land birds. Its plentiful bird, fish, and plant food sources caused a population growth and created a rich culture on the island. The main resources that can be found on Easter Island today are copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum. It also has a strong agricultural industry that produces sweet potato, sugar cane, yams, bananas and gourds along with more recent crop introductions such as tomatoes, onions, maize, grapes, figs, melons, beans, pineapples and various fruit trees. Trees were thought to be the islands most precious resource; however there are few trees today because the island’s inhibitors did not practice sustainability when consuming the limited resources of the island.

Thus, it is clear that while Easter Island is now relatively stable, its history has been marked by a depletion of resources that is still evident today. It is clear that this depletion was not due to the environment of the island but rather by the ways of its people. The success stories of many other islands show that a flourishing environment and culture is indeed possible with the correct use of resources.

For example, the island of Tikopia has had a stable and flourishing environment for the last 3,000 years. While scientists have proven that there are some environmental factors that have caused such a difference between the two islands such as higher rates of soil replenishment, the main differences come down to the culture of the islands and the ways of their people. One of the ways in which the people of Tikopia practiced sustainability was by limiting the slash and burn cultivation and using intensive agriculture on fixed garden plots. They also had a strict reproductive policy that prevented further increases in population. Their agricultural practices were also strongly and consciously tied to the population density which shows that they took into account the limitation of their resources.

“Tikopia village houses”, www.environmentalgraffiti.com/featured/the-origins-of-polynesia

In contrast, the inhabitants of Easter Island had different methods of using their land and resources. Jared Diamond, author of Ecological Collapses of Pre-industrial Societies, describes the methods used on Easter Island when he states, “The first Polynesian settlers began to clear the forest for agriculture. They used the trees for firewood and to build canoes with which they went to sea to catch porpoises and deep-water fish. They ate the native land birds, the seabirds, and the fruits of the palm tree. They also used the trunks of the palm trees as rollers and levers to transport and erect their giant statues”. It is clear from this description that the inhabitants of Easter Island were not careful in their use of resources, especially the trees which were thought to be their most useful resource. Eventually, their once flourishing forest was cleared and their society came to a crashing halt. Because they had no wood they could no longer build canoes. Furthermore, all of species of birds became extinct.  Almost every other aspect of the environment that once thrived came to a halt along with the population of the islanders.

 

The Barren Land of Easter Island

http://www.galenfrysinger.com/rapa_nui.htm

As one can see from this comparison, there are some major differences between the two approaches to the environment that were used on Easter Island and Tikopia Island. While they were somewhat different environmentally, they both had the potential to thrive. What differed between the two was the use of sustainable practices by the inhabitants. While Tikopia used took measures in order to preserve its valuable resources, Easter Island did not. Thus, when Easter Island was becoming a barren land, the Island of Tikopia was still flourishing as it is to this today.

Environmental Titles/How GDP is related to fertility rate

Short Answer Questions

a)  Though environmental scientists, ecologists, and environmentalists are all related titles, there are some differences that are unique to each one.  Environmental scientists usually conduct field and laboratory studies in order to study a range of factors.  They also examine living things while considering the effects of climate, geological processes, temperature changes, and water cycles on habitats.  However, a strong educational background in science is necessary in both ecology and environmental science.

Ecologists however, differ from environmental scientists in that they tend to focus their studies on very specific populations of living organisms. They also try to understand how populations interact, reproduce, and survive within their habitats. They concentrate mainly on immediate factors such as food preferences and predators and are then able to explain the developmental adaptations that influence a species.

On the other hand, environmentalism is a very broad social movement regarding concerns for the conservation and improvement of the environment.  And environmentalist is someone who may speak out regarding the preservation of the environment either through public policy or individual behavior.  Thus, anyone can be an environmentalist.  Furthermore, both environmental scientists and ecologists can be environmentalists, however environmentalists are not necessarily environmental scientists or ecologists due to the fact that these areas require a strong educational background.

I would like to be labeled as any one of these names.  All three have a positive connotation due to the fact that they all take measures to help preserve and improve our environment.

a)

This graph shows that the greater the fertility rate of a county, the less developed it will be.  On the other hand, the general trend of the graph shows that a smaller fertility rate is related to a higher GDP.  In turn, the GDP is related to how developed the country is.  Therefore, this the overall trend of this graph tells us that the higher the fertility rate, the lower the GDP and visa versa.